When Satya Nadella became CEO of Microsoft in 2014, he inherited a company whose culture was known for hostility, infighting, and backstabbing among its top executives.

To turn the company around, he made the members of his senior leadership team read the 2003 book “Nonviolent Communication” by the psychologist Marshall B. Rosenberg. Nadella handed out copies at his first executive meeting.

Effective communication has 4 components.

According to the book, there are four components of effective communication:

• Observing what is happening in a situation (such as someone saying or doing something you don’t like).

• Stating how you feel when you observe the action.

• Expressing how your needs are connected to the feelings you identified.

• Addressing what you want by requesting a concrete action.

In “Nonviolent Communication,” Rosenberg preaches compassion and empathy as cornerstones of effective communication.